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Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18) by FLOW

Test Code


Test Synonyms

Beta2 integrin


Leuocycte adhesion, Phagocyte aggregation, CD18 (beta2 integrin) gene


Flow Cytometry

Turnaround Time

1 day

Specimen Requirements

5 mL (min. 0.5 mL) sodium heparin blood preferred, EDTA whole blood accepted
1 mL (min. 0.5 mL) sodium heparin bone marrow aspirate preferred, EDTA bone marrow accepted


Specimen Stability
Whole blood stable for 48 hours at room temperature
Bone marrow stable for 48 hours at 4°C
Storage & Handling

Whole blood ship ambient. Protect from extreme temperature with an ice pack. Separate ice pack from specimen.
Bone marrow ship with ice pack. Separate ice pack from specimen.

Causes for Rejection
Reference Range

See report


Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a rare disorder of leukocyte function. LAD has been classified into two major subtypes and rare variants. 

LAD type 1 is the more common subtype and is characterized by decreased or absent expression of the CD11/CD18 complex, resulting in an inability of leukocytes to emigrate from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation. Severely affected infants present with delayed umbilical cord detachment, recurrent or progressive non-purulent infections, delayed wound healing and leukocytosis. Flow cytometry can be used to detect normal expression of the CD11/CD18 complex.

LAD type 2 is less common and is a disorder of fucosylation characterized by deficiency of sialyl Lewis X (sLex) and an inability of normal leukocyte rolling function on activated endothelium.

Other “variants” of LAD have been reported and include normal expression, but dysfunctional CD11/CD18; E selectin/CD62E expressed, but cleaved and present only as soluble form; and defective Rap-1 activator CalDAG-GEFI.

  1. Nervi SJ et al. (2007). Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency. eMedicine.
  2. Cox et al. (2007). Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1: an important consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis of prepubertal periodontitis. a case report and review of the literature. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology.
  3. Hann et al. (2006). Pediatric Hematology. Blackwell Publishing.
  4. Lichtman et al. (2006). Hematology, 7th edition.  McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 935-938.
  5. Nervi SJ (2006). Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency. eMedicine.
  6. Etzioni A. (2005). Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) Syndromes. Orphanet Encyclopedia.
  7. Keren et al. (2001). Flow Cytometry in Clinical Diagnosis 3rd edition. ASCP Press.