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Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CD11b, CD15, CD18) by FLOW*

Test Code


Test Synonyms

Beta 2 integrins


Type I and II leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Panel measures CD11b, CD15, and CD18 on neutrophils.


Semi-Quantitative Flow Cytometry

* Performed by affiliate laboratory

Turnaround Time

3 days

Specimen Requirements

5 mL (min. 1 mL) sodium heparin or lithium heparin whole blood


Specimen Stability
Stable for 48 hours at 4°C

Storage & Handling

Ship refrigerated. Protect from extreme temperature. Separate ice pack from specimen.


Causes for Rejection

Clotted specimens. Frozen or room temperature specimens.  Specimens greater than 48 hours.

Reference Range

See report


The Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Panel measures the receptors CD11b, CD15, and CD18 on neutrophils. The percentage of patient neutrophils bearing these receptors is reported. Although these receptors are normally found on neutrophils; values outside of the reference interval may correlate with abnormal neutrophil function. For example, CD18 is decreased or absent in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) type I and CD15 is decreased or absent in LAD type II.

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  2. Cox et al. (2007). Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1: an important consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis of prepubertal periodontitis. a case report and review of the literature. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology.
  3. Hann et al. (2006). Pediatric Hematology. Blackwell Publishing.
  4. Lichtman et al. (2006). Hematology, 7th edition.  McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 935-938.
  5. Nervi SJ (2006). Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency. eMedicine.
  6. Etzioni A. (2005). Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) Syndromes. Orphanet Encyclopedia.
  7. Keren et al. (2001). Flow Cytometry in Clinical Diagnosis 3rd edition. ASCP Press.